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Arizona ([email protected]) Navajo pronunciation : [hozto haho;tso]; O’odham: Ali Sonak) is a state located in the Western United States. It is grouped in the Southwestern, Mountain and occasionally subregions. It is the 6th largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Phoenix is the capital and largest city. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah to the north, Colorado to the northeast, and New Mexico to the east; its other neighboring states are Nevada to the northwest, California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest.
Arizona, 48th state and the last contiguous state to be admitted to Union, became a state on February 14, 1912. Historically part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. Mexico surrendered large swathes of this territory to the United States after being defeated in the Mexican-American War. The southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase.
Southern Arizona is well-known for its desert climate. It experiences very hot summers with mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, and spruce trees; the Colorado Plateau; mountain ranges (such as the San Francisco Mountains); as well as large, deep canyons, with much more moderate summer temperatures and significant winter snowfalls. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff, Alpine, and Tucson. There are many national forests, national parks and national monuments in addition to the internationally recognized Grand Canyon National Park.